Cancer - The most spreading disease

What is cancer?
Cancer, also known as malignancy, is described as an abnormal growth of cells. It can affect any person of any age group in any organ or tissue of the human body.  There are more than 100 types of cancer which includes breast cancer, skin cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer and lymphoma etc. however the symptoms and signs of cancer are seen according to the type of cancer. It is caused by the abnormalities by some environmental changes in the genetic material of the cell. Get more information on cancer see cancer ppt presentation by clicking here.

Causes of cancer
Cancer doesn’t have any specific symptoms but still there are few common symptoms in the human body suffering from cancer. They are as follows:

·         Benzene and other chemicals
·         Some viruses
·         Radiation
·         Sunlight
·         Tobacco
·         Smoking and intake of alcohol

These are some of the causes however the causes of cancer are unknown. Get more on causes of cancer click here to see cancer slides.

Symptoms of cancer

Cancer doesn’t have any specific symptoms and it depends on the cancer like gall bladder cancer doesn’t show any symptoms unless it reaches the advance stage.
Liver cancer has symptoms like coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath etc.

Following are some of the common symptoms of cancer.

·         Chills
·         Fatigue
·         Fever
·         Loss of appetite
·         Malaise
·         Night sweats
·         Weight loss

For more information on cancer symptoms see the cancer symptoms ppt.

Understanding the diagnosis of cancer

Cancer such as skin Cancer, breast Cancer, mouth Cancer, testicles Cancer, prostate Cancer, and rectum Cancer etc. can be detected by regular examination and screening measures. The testing should be some whenever you find any pain in the body or lymph found in any part of the body. Cancer is detected before the medical examination of tumor in the body  as some symptoms are almost same and cancer is diagnosed after all the other medical testing in the body.  
Cancer is examined with thorough study of each part of the body along with the previous medical history. Any abnormalities in Lab studies of blood, urine, and stool are also diagnosed thoroughly. Any abnormalities in these tests can detect cancer. In case tumor is suspected, some test’s like X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and fiberoptic scope examinations helps doctors to easily determine the location and size.  
For the confirmation of cancer diagnosis, a biopsy is performed: A tissue sample is surgically removed from the suspected part of the body and studied under a microscope to check cancer cells.

Treatment of cancer

Cancer can be treated according to its type. It is treated according to the stage and the stage is known by the location and size of the tumor and how far it has spread. Cancer requires a combination of surgery ,radiation and chemotherapy depending upon the case. to know more on cancer click here to see cancer ppt slides.

Prevention of cancer

“Prevention is better than cure” as it is said you should not chew tobacco; smoking and alcohol intake should be avoided. These three things help cancer to develop and is the main cause of lung cancer. Excessive exposure to sunlight is also one of the causes for skin cancer. 

Preventive measures for brain stroke

What is Stroke?

A stroke, known medically as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the rapidly developing loss of brain function(s) due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This can be due to ischemia (lack of blood flow) caused by blockage (thrombosis, arterial embolism), or a hemorrhage (leakage of blood). As a result, the affected area of the brain is unable to function, leading to inability to move one or more limbs on one side of the body, inability to understand or formulate speech, or an inability to see one side of the visual field. Click to see brain stroke ppt here.

Classification of Stroke
There are two major categories of stroke.

·        Ischemic strokes
·        Hemorrhagic strokes

      Definition and Classification

      Blood clot or blockages in the arteries causes Ischemic strokes and when blood vessels break it causes hemorrhagic strokes.
       The most common cause of Ischemic strokes is the blockages in the carotid arteries. This cause is responsible in the 80 % cases of strokes. In old age the arteries become narrowed with rough deposits of plaque which is called "stenosis". Click here for brain stroke ppt presentation.

      What results in Stroke?
      The unhealthy arteries block completely when the plaque accumulates or the breakage results in clot this disease is called "embolism" and "thrombosis". When the arteries become plugged, the blood cannot reach the brain thus it results in stroke.
      The fatty deposits or plaque which is building up in the arteries carrying blood to the brain causes Thrombotic strokes. In this stroke the blood moves very slowly through the arteries because of plaque and the clots are formed in the blood that blocks the movement of oxygen and nutrients to the brain.

      An embolic stroke is caused by a blood clot formed in another part of the body which breaks loose, travels through the bloodstream, and then blocks an artery carrying nutrients and oxygen to the brain.

      A hemorrhagic stroke takes place when an artery supplying blood bleeds into the brain. The ruptured blood vessel prevents needed oxygen and nutrients from reaching brain cells. One type of hemorrhagic stroke is caused when an artery which has weakened over time, bulges (called an aneurysm) and suddenly bursts.

      What Causes a Stroke?

      ·        High blood pressure
      ·        Diabetes
      ·        Overweight
      ·        Smoking and intake of excessive alcohol
        Apart from all the above cause stroke is also a genetic disease which is transferred from one person other through genes. If you already had a stroke once than you should be careful of some problems like blurred vision, numbness specially an uncomfortable feeling on one side, slurred speech, clumsiness.

        What are the symptoms of stroke?
        Symptoms like weakness of the face or a limb, a blurring of vision, dizziness or an extreme headache are some of the common symptoms of stroke.

        How can stroke be prevented?

        Following are some of the preventive measures of stroke:-

        ·        Check or know your blood pressure
        ·        Note if you have atrial fibrillation, which emboldens the formation of blood clots
        ·        Stop smoking and less intake of alcohol
        ·        Check or know you cholesterol level it should not be high
        ·        Do regular exercise
        ·        Eat a low-salt diet
          Get more information on brain stroke prevention ppt by clicking here.

          When to consult the physician?
          Consult your physician if you feel symptoms like weakness of the face or a limb, a blurring of vision, dizziness or an extreme headache. If you once come across stroke than be cautious and seek medical advice by your physician in routine. 

          What is Malaria and how it is caused?

          What is Malaria?
          Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a eukaryotic protist of the genus Plasmodium or a mosquito. There are millions of cases of Malaria every year. It is most common in America, Asia and Africa. Download malaria ppt presentation by clicking here.
          There are five species Plasmodium which can infect human body. They are as follows:-

          ·         Plasmodium falciparum
          ·         Plasmodium vivax
          ·         Plasmodium ovale
          ·         Plasmodium malariae
          ·         Plasmodium knowlesi

          Plasmodium falciparum is the most serious one as compared to all the above species of plasmodium. You can get more about plasmodium in lots of malaria PowerPoint (ppt) presentations.

          Causes of Malaria
          In humans malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi. Most common cause of malaria is Plasmodium falciparum it is responsible for around 80 % of the malaria patients and 90 % death cases of malaria. Other species of plasmodium also infect human body but not as much as Falciparum.
          Transmission of Malaria
          Malaria is naturally transmitted by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. When a mosquito bites an infected person, a small amount of blood is taken, which contains malaria parasites. These develop within the mosquito, and about one week later, when the mosquito takes its next blood meal, the parasites are injected with the mosquito's saliva into the person being bitten. After a period of between two weeks and several months (occasionally years) spent in the liver, the malaria parasites start to multiply within red blood cells, causing symptoms that include fever, and headache. In severe cases the disease worsens leading to hallucinations, coma, and death. Malaria is also transmitted by following factors:-

          ·         Blood transfusion
          ·         Using tainted needles or syringes
          ·         Organ transplant

          Signs and Symptoms of Malaria
          ·         Fever with chills
          ·         Nausea
          ·         Headache
          ·         Vomiting
          ·         Anemia / Jaundice
          ·         Arthralgia (joint pain)
          ·         Retinal Damage
          ·         Shivering
          ·         Renal Failure
          ·         Haemoglobinuria
          ·         Fatigue and muscular pains
          All above are the common symptoms and signs of Malaria. But it differs from person to person and there is also other lot of complicated or clinical symptoms of Malaria. Get more information on malaria symptoms and treatment ppt by clicking here.

          Treatment of Malaria 

          The following are some Antimalarial drugs
          ·         Quinine
          ·         Chloroquine
          ·         Mefloquine
          ·         Antibiotics eg doxycycline, clindamycin, azithromycin
          Other than these there are lots of drugs available for the patients suffering from malaria. It’s better to take the dose of medicines under the doctor’s consultant as malaria is an acute disease. These medicines are given according to the age group.

          How Malaria can be prevented?
          Malaria transmission can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites by distribution of inexpensive mosquito nets and insect repellents, or by mosquito-control measures such as spraying insecticides inside houses and draining standing water where mosquitoes lay their eggs.

          Dengue Fever

          These days dengue fever is spreading at its peak lots of people are suffering out of it. Dengue mosquito usually bites at dawn or dusk but it can bite at any time in day especially in the cloudy and shady areas. According to the world health organization there are more than 40 million people infected by dengue every year. Dengue PowerPoint presentations can provide detailed matter on dengue.

          What is dengue fever?
          Dengue also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is an illness which is transmitted by a bite of Aedes mosquitoes. It is an acute illness which occurs with a sudden onset of fever, headache, joint pain, vomiting, rashes and swollen glands etc. dengue fever is also known by the name "breakbone" or "dandy fever." Click here to see dengue fever ppt presentation.

          Cause of dengue fever:-
          The breeding of these mosquitoes is caused in water that too in clean and accumulated water. These mosquitoes multiply very rapidly.

          Diffusion of Dengue fever:
          Dengue is transmitted in a human body by a bite of an infected mosquito. It cannot be transferred from infected person to another person. It has to be a mosquito to person pathway.

          Symptoms of dengue fever:-

          *      Fever and headache
          *      Pain and redness in eyes
          *      Dizziness and fatique.
          *      Loss of appetite
          *      Decrease in number of platelets
          *      Nausea and vomiting
          *      Joint pains and rashes
          In some cases the symptoms also vary from individual to individual also. These are the common or basic symptoms and signs in the human body infected by dengue. See the dengue symptoms ppt presentation for more symptoms on dengue.

          Diagnosis of dengue fever:-
          Dengue can be diagnosed accordingly. Some blood testing and other testing is required to diagnose the disease. See the diagnosis of Dengue ppt for more information.
          Treatment of dengue fever.
          As dengue fever is transmitted by a virus or infected mosquito there is no specific medicine or antibiotics for this fever. So the treatment of dengue is symptomatic or depending upon the symptoms. Proper rest and intake of fluids is very important in this disease.  Aspirin and other non - steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are given under the medical supervision of the doctor.

          Prevention of dengue:-
          *      Wear full sleeves or cover your body properly
          *       Use mosquito repellants
          *      Keep an eye on the accumulated water in flower pots, coolers, old tires etc.
          Government is also taking initiative to eradicate dengue and breeding of mosquitoes. But an individual can benefit a lot by their own contribution.

          When to consult a doctor?
           One should consult the doctor immediately when any of the above symptoms occur as dengue when not treated properly can even take your life. So be careful when you fall ill.